terça-feira, 1 de novembro de 2011

One Heidegger, Early and Late?



Some scholars see two Heidegger’s, others three, and the debate continues on. But I suggest that Voegelin would say there is only one Heidegger: a spiritually closed figure who first takes up the call to “authentic resoluteness” through “power and struggle” and then later comes to “play” and “letting-be.”



This is harsh personal criticism rather than philosophical argument. But it can be no harsher than the cold calculation with which Heidegger ignores practical, experientially based approaches to politics in favor of an abstract poeticizing that is so preoccupied with essence that it never reaches beyond it. Voegelin was never one to shy away from controversy, and as he told Karl Löwith regarding his critique of Heidegger, “that it was not hard enough.”69



Richard Polt summarizes this succinctly in a recent article on Heidegger’s philosophical confrontation with National Socialism.70 Heidegger became disillusioned with the movement he thought contained “an inner-truth and greatness,” so he retreated to the serenity of academic life.



But this also had callous consequences because “[he reduced political and national issues] to metaphysics and the history of being, [which] is to obliterate a genuine domain of [social and political] experience.”71 Heidegger's aloofness led him to distort human nature and allow being to be annihilated ontologically, while “[failing] to face up to the 'complete annihilation' of particular human beings [Jews, etc.] that he himself had endorsed in 1933.”72



Let me close with one of my favorite lines from Voegelin in the Selected Correspondence. It rings with the thunder of Edmund Burke’s great counsel:



“Indecency thrives where others are silent out of politeness.”73



NOTES


37. Löwith, Karl. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. ed. Richard Wolin. Columbia: Columbia University Press. 1995, 4.

38. Voegelin, Eric. Autobiographical Reflections, ed. Ellis Sandoz.CW 34.Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press. 1989. 113.

39. Voegelin, Eric.In Search of Order, CW 18, (Order and History, Vol 5). Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press.2000, 79.

40. Voegelin, Eric. Published Essays, 1966-1985. ed. Ellis Sandoz., CW 12.Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press. 1990. 7.

41. Id.

42. CW 12, 8-9.

43. Id.

44. Walsh, David. 2002. “Editor’s Introduction.” In Anamnesis: On the Theory of History and Politics, trans. M.J. Hanak. Collected Works of Eric Voegelin, Vol. 6. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press.1990, 13.

45. Voegelin, Eric.Hitler and the Germans, CW 31.Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press.2007, 250.

46. Ibid. 261.

47. Id.

48. CW 30, 635.

49. CW 12, 43-44.

50. Ibid. 43.

51. Ibid. 51.

52. Voegelin, Eric. Science, Politics, and Gnosticism, in Modernity without Restraint, CW 5. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press.2000, 276.

53. Voegelin, Eric.The Ecumenic Age CW 17 (Order and History, Vol 4), Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press. 2000, 75.

54. Voegelin, Eric. 2004. Science, Politics, and Gnosticism, Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, quoting from the introduction by Ellis Sandoz for this special paperbound edition, xiv.

55. CW 30, 854.

56. Ibid. 634.

57. Hughes, Glenn. Mystery and Myth in the Philosophy of Eric Voegelin. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press. 1993, 57.

58. Walsh, Op. cit. CW 30.

59. Ibid, 23.

60. Ibid, 13.

61. Ibid, 18.

62. Hughes, 11.

63. Ibid, 12.

64. Ibid, 13.

65. Ibid, 12.

66. Ibid, 12-13., CW 12.

67. Ibid, 116.

68. Id.

69. CW 30, 112.

70. Polt, Richard. “Beyond Struggle and Power: Heidegger’s Secret Resistance.” Interpretation: A Journal of Political Philosophy 35(1): 11-40. 2007.

71. Ibid. 35.

72. Ibid. 36.

73. Burke’s saying was: “The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.”



REFERENCES


Dallmayr, Fred. 1993. The Other Heidegger. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Heidegger, Martin. 1985. Schelling’s Treatise on the Essence of Human Freedom. trans. Joan Stambaugh. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.

Hughes, Glenn. 993. Mystery and Myth in the Philosophy of Eric Voegelin. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press.

Löwith, Karl. 1995. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. ed. Richard Wolin. Columbia: Columbia University Press.

Polt, Richard. 2007.“Beyond Struggle and Power: Heidegger’s Secret Resistance.” Interpretation: A Journal of Political Philosophy 35(1): 11-40.

Porter, Clifford F. 2002. “Eric Voegelin on Nazi Political Extremism.” Journal of the History of Ideas 63(1): 151-71.

Sandoz, Ellis. 2004. “Editor’s Introduction.” In Science, Politics, and Gnosticism. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books.

Voegelin, Eric. 2007. The Collected Works of Eric Voegelin, vol. 30, Selected Correspondence, 1950-1984. ed. Thomas A. Hollweck. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press.

_____. 2004. Science, Politics, and Gnosticism. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books.

_____. 1999. Hitler and the Germans. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.

_____. 1990. The Collected Works of Eric Voegelin, vol. 12, Published Essays, 1966-1985. ed. Ellis Sandoz. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press.

_____. 1989. Autobiographical Reflections. ed. Ellis Sandoz. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.

_____. 1987. Order and History: In Search of Order. Vol. 5. Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press.

_____. 1984. The Beginning and the Beyond. ed. Fred Lawrence. Chico, CA: Scholars Press.

_____. 1974. Order and History: The Ecumenic Age. Vol. 4. Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press.

Walsh, David. 2002. “Editor’s Introduction.” In Anamnesis: On the Theory of History and Politics, trans. M.J. Hanak. Collected Works of Eric Voegelin, Vol. 6. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press.

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